Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic condition that is becoming increasingly more common in children and adults. EoE has only been recognized as a specific clinical condition since the early 1990s. Over the past two decades there have been great strides in the understanding and treatment of the disorder. There is still much to be learned and changes to the management of the condition continue to occur. Given the child’s complex relationship with food, school nurses need to be aware of this condition and understand what steps should be taken to help manage this condition and keep the student safe.
What is EoE?
EoE has been defined by a panel of experts as “a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated, esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation” with other causes excluded. EoE occurs when eosinophils (a type of white blood cell), accumulates in the esophagus. The elevated number of eosinophils cause injury and inflammation to the esophagus and this damage may make eating difficult or uncomfortable, potentially resulting in poor growth, chronic pain, and/or difficulty swallowing.
Symptoms of EoE:
Symptoms of EoE may vary from one individual to the next and may differ depending on age.
- Infants and Toddlers:
- Food refusal
- Failure to Thrive
- School-Age Children:
- Recurring abdominal pain
- Trouble swallowing
- Adolescents and Adults:
- Difficult or painful swallowing
- Food impaction2
What causes eosinophilic esophagitis?
Healthcare providers have not determined the exact cause of EoE, the general belief is that it is caused by an immune response/allergic reaction to food or substances in the environment. EoE differs from anaphylactic allergies (type I reaction) as the reaction that occurs after exposure to the allergen may not be immediate. The pathogenesis of EoE appears to depend largely upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity which is different from anaphylaxis food allergies. (See table below for more information regarding different types of allergic reactions.) Although with EoE, complications from exposure to a food allergen may not be immediate and life threatening, as is the case for anaphylactic food allergies, a food allergen exposure can cause flare-ups, increased symptoms, and potential injury and inflammation to the student’s esophagus. Care and planning need to occur to prevent a student with EoE from an accidental exposure. Additionally, students who are diagnosed with EoE may be on an elimination diet and undergoing ongoing evaluation and repeated endoscopies to evaluate eosinophilic counts. An accidental exposure to an allergen could complicate the treatment plan. If an allergen exposure were to occur it is important to communicate that to the student, family and health care provider.
|Type of allergic reactions:|
|· Type I reactions (i.e., immediate hypersensitivity reactions) involve immunoglobulin E (IgE)–mediated release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils. Examples include anaphylaxis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.|
|· Type II reactions (i.e., cytotoxic hypersensitivity reactions) involve immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M antibodies bound to cell surface antigens, with subsequent complement fixation. An example is drug-induced hemolytic anemia.|
|· Type III reactions (i.e., immune-complex reactions) involve circulating antigen-antibody immune complexes that deposit in postcapillary venules, with subsequent complement fixation. An example is serum sickness.|
|· Type IV reactions (i.e., delayed hypersensitivity reactions, cell-mediated immunity) are mediated by T cells rather than by antibodies. An example is contact dermatitis from poison ivy or nickel allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis.|
Who is affected?
Eosinophilic esophagitis is considered a rare disease, but increasing in prevalence with an estimated 1 out of 2,000 people affected. EoE affects people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds. While both males and females may be affected, a higher incidence is seen in males. People with EoE commonly have other allergic diseases such as rhinitis, asthma, and/or eczema. Certain families may have an inherited tendency to develop EoE.2
How is eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosed?
EoE is diagnosed by examining a biopsy of the esophagus. A count of 15 or more eosinophils per high-powered microscopic field is highly suggestive of EoE.2
The two main treatments recommended for EoE are diet management and medication. In some cases, a combination of these therapies may be used.
Diet therapy involves removal of suspected or known food triggers. Often, this includes removal of common allergy-causing foods such as milk, wheat, eggs, soy, peanuts/tree nuts, and fish/shellfish.2
For some individuals, elemental nutrition may be recommended to supplement the diet, or for full nutrition. Elemental diets consist of special amino acid-based formulas that do not elicit an allergic response. If an individual with EoE has diﬃculty drinking suﬃcient amounts of formula and/or the health care provider believes it is necessary for other reasons, there may be the need for placement of a temporary nasogastric tube (NG tube) or a gastrostomy tube (g-tube).2
Common Medications used to Treat EoE:
There are currently no FDA-approved medicines available indicated specifically for the treatment of EoE. However, health care providers have found that topical steroids are often successful in putting EoE into remission. Topical steroids (fluticasone or budesonide) are swallowed from an asthma inhaler or mixture to control inflammation and suppress the eosinophils. (Systemic corticosteroids such as Prednisone are not used for chronic management of the disorder, but may be prescribed for acute situations and short periods of time.)2
Acid suppressors (proton pump inhibitors, commonly abbreviated as PPIs)
May also help relieve reflux symptoms in some patients in combination with dietary therapy or medications.2
Dilation of the Esophagus:
If the esophagus has become too narrow as the result of EoE, it may cause food to become impacted. An esophageal dilation may be recommended to treat a narrowed esophagus. This procedure involves inflating a balloon or inserting a tube into the narrowed section of the esophagus and stretching it out.2
Considerations for the School Nurse:
As with students with other chronic health conditions, students with EoE should have an individualized health plan and may benefit from a 504 plan. Students with EoE may have a complex relationship with food that can create some challenges in the school setting. Communication between the student, family, healthcare provider and school is vital. Below are some action steps the school nurse should consider.
The school nurse should:
- Meet with the student and family to discuss how the child is impacted by EoE:
- Are there known food allergies?
- What food(s) is the child avoiding?
- What symptoms does the student currently have?
- What does the child do to treat symptoms?
- Are there different/additional symptoms that occur during a flare-up?
- Does the student require any accommodations related to food, meal times and snacks?
- Does the student require any modifications related to bathroom use?
- Discuss and develop a plan regarding how to communicate food allergy and food restrictions to teachers and other school staff.
- Students with EoE may have a very restricted diet and may require accommodations at school, such as access to a refrigerator and/or microwave.
- If the healthcare provider orders a restricted diet, prepare the appropriate paperwork so that the school’s food service will provide the needed food items.
- Discuss with student and family if other students and families will be notified of the student’s condition.
- If other families will be notified, discuss how information will be communicated.
- Develop a plan to communicate changes in student’s diet, symptom tracking, what to do if an accidental exposure occurs at school, etc.
- Develop an emergency care plan that outlines what to do and whom to contact if a food impaction occurs at school.
- If the student has an NG or G-tube, develop an individualized health plan for management of the NG or G-tube while at school.
- The individualized health plan should include information regarding what to do if the tube becomes dislodged.
- The individualized health plan should include who is allowed to manage the NG or G-tube (see School Health Associate’s School Nurse Procedure page for additional school nurse resources).
Acknowledgment: Thank you to American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders for their permission to include content from their website and for the review of this document.
Additional EoE Resources:
- American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders. School Advocacy. http://apfed.org/advocacy/school-advocacy/
- American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders. “EOS What?”. (This flyer is designed to teach elementary school-aged children how to support a classmate who has eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease.) https://apfed.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/egid-school-handout.pdf
- American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders. Sample 504. http://apfed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/504PlanningSample.pdf
- American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: https://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/related-conditions/eosinophilic-esophagitis
- Campaign Urging Research for Eosinophilic Disease: https://curedfoundation.org/
 Dellon et al. (2018). Updated international consensus diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis: Proceedings of the AGREE conference. Gastroenterology. 155(4): 1022–1033 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174113/pdf/nihms-1500097.pdf
 Aceves, S.S. (2018). Dietary management of eosinophilic esophagitis. Up To Date. Available at: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/dietary-management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
 Buelow, B. (2015). Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions. Medscape. Available at: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/136217-overview